Kaizen Basic Education | lean manufacturing

What is Kaizen? | kanban board | jidoka

The general meaning of Improvement (Kaizen) is to improve a thing that is in bad condition. The term Improvement in the manufacturing industry has the meaning of bottom up activities are carried out mainly by the factory workers.


The activities of improving the production are to equip modifications, new tools and work to ensure the safety and operational efficiency of a production error proofing allover the area and to prevent problems related to quality production. Improvement is often described as Kaizen nowadays. When the expansion of Japanese manufacturing plants abroad,trainers were dispatched from Japan to teach the local staff. Through such result, Kaizen became the world-wide word in the world. kaizen3 1.Production facilities that incorporate the wisdom,have a lead to others using the same equipment. 2. By making modifications on their own to suppress large-scale investment rather than just buying what you lack. 3. Improvement is not just working under the order of company but the characteristic of workers changing things out of their own wisdom. 4.Employers support a lot of QC-circle activities. More over improvement is not finished once but one after another, sustainability and continuity are important. kaizen2

The History of Kaizen

The management system of Toyata is the first to incorporate and utilize the wisdom of the workers systematically to achieve achievements. The productivity in the fieldside,changingof the work methodsin order to improvethe quality and the jigs are used in any country and any era have been implemented with the immediate on-site productivity without spending money and improve the quality. 1.Sakichi Toyoda ・・・‘Automation with A Human Touch’ 2.Kiichiro Toyoda ・・・Just-in-time (J.I.T) 3. Taiichi Ohno ・・・Systemization of the production of Toyata kaizen4

History and philosophy of Toyota Production System

The Philosophy of Toyata Production

The success of the Toyota Production System is not just because of the tools of production management such as ‘Kanban’, ‘Kaizen’ etc., it is a culture or a system that can cultivate ideas and make good products day and night at the site by the carpenters. A culture or a system of cultivating ideas. kaizen6 This steady is the practice of maximum effort and because the results are influenced by the good or bad luck so do not be glad and sad by turns. (Process-oriented principles) kaizen7

Kanban System

From the beginning until the last process,take only the required amount of the required items when required. Then, the earlier manufacturing process is to supply only the amount of production which was taken over. In this way,the Kanban method prevents over process while being a tool of putting the overall just-in-time into practice. 1. The origin of‘onepiece flow’ manufacturing 2. Following with the take-back process 3. Zero inventory 4. ‘Leveling work’ → Obey the cycle time 5. Do not make it so fast. kaizen8

Automation with A Human Touch | jidoka

1.Immediately stops the line when poor response occurs. 2.It brings confusions to customers if a product is produced without handling the real cause. 3.“Automation with a Human Touch”is not about “Automation”but to attach humans’wisdom onto the machine so it will not shut off automatically. kaizen9 4. Keep asking the question‘Why?’evenfor 5 or10 times andis necessarytohave a line of does time. not want something bad to occur for the second time. kaizen10

Muda(Waste) Elimination |Gemba

‘Treasure things’ and ‘the thinking of do not waste’ are the origin ofeliminating muda. 1. Mudaof processing 3.Muda of overproduction 4. Mudaof waiting 6. Mudaof transport 5. Muda of repair/rejects kaizen11

The mind of Toyota’s manufacturing

“In a company when there is no race to get each person to add their good ideas to the work they do, I think this ruins people. Your improvements make the job easier for you, and give you time to make further improvements. Unlike in the [Charlie] Chaplin movie where people are treated as parts of a machine, the ability to ‘add your creative ideas and changes to your own work’ is what makes it possible to do work that is worthy of humans.” TaiichiOhno

The Kaizen Philosophy | lean thinking

The world is constantly changing. Therefore, corporations as well as the people are changing, if countermeasures are not practiced, one cannot survive. At first, explorethe changesthat areunder the constraints. There is an infinite ways of changing but in able to survive, change is finite. However, no one knows what is the BEST changing. Possibility for changes inBEST are hidden from thechanges innon-BEST. The valuation of whether it is BEST or not is, because the decision is made by the external world (customers), thedecisionitselfcannotdetermine and be concluded. When the evaluation of the outside world is good, then that is the good one. Therefore, the firstthing we need to doisto take actionof thechanges. Results will be known if action is taken, the next action can be taken if the results is analyzed. kaizen12

Take a serious view of the results or the process?

For everything, it is not a big achievement if something successes according to the plan in our head.Becausesuch a thing has always alreadybeen implemented.. The probability of successful is low, the thing no one wants to do, no one implements it and therefore, there is a value of trying. Thentryto verify why failures occurred. Never give up and key tosuccessis in it. “Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeedisalways to try just one more time.” Thomas Edison kaizen13 According to the global changes, the method of work has to correspond in accordance with the corresponding reality. At first, grope for the correspondence in the constraints. kaizen14

How to proceed Kaizen?

Organization. Management.Cogitation. 1)Organization:The continuity of developing the entire Kaizen organization. ・Membership ・Rules and regulations are made. 2)Management:Make an approachment and a mechanism to keep the managementsystemontrack andthe activationofKaizenactivities. ・Select and train a leader. 3)Cogitation:Explain and make the employees consent to the definition of Kaizen. ・Kaizen education

Promote Kaizen to employees.

1. The way of thinking: Understand the meaning of Kaizenand urge the participation of Kaizenactivities. 2. Enthusiasm: Set a notice board and premium for those who are actively involved. 3. Education: Educate the technology of efficiency improvement and methods. kaizen16

Kaizen Implementation

1. Immediate implementation. Immediate action: If there is any problem, apply Kaizen on the spot. There are Kaizen chances if problems occurred especially when the problems only occur occasionally. Analyze the situation on the spot and investigate the problem.   2. Do not waste time: Do not conduct special meetings but instead proceed Kaizen. Seek advice from supervisors and seniors if there is something to consult and confirm.   3. Do not spend money: The resolution of trouble cannot be handled by money. The thinking of whether one can access alternatively cheap and available for carrying out present item as well as commercial item.   4. Suggestion from others: Seek suggestions from supervisors, seniors as well as managers from other departments.

Kaizen& Innovation

What is The Innovation? The innovation type of revolution of the world leads to a contribution in development and spend a lot of time and money on invention. Also again, there are many developed, invented and copied items, profit as well as the members who are in charge of it comes to only have a small amount and it often does not occur. Characteristics: 1. It needs an enormous cost. 2.A long-term studies is needed. 3. Miscellanies do not occur frequently. 4. Easy to be imitated.

 Planned implementation.

(Analysis of present state, countermeasure, affirmation, evaluation) kaizen17 Increasing The Productivity Productivitycan be improvedby increasing the productivity which consumes a lot of time and money and it includes the members and all the field workers. Also,  a good management system that is built is difficult to be imitated by other companies. Characteristics: 1. Huge sum of money and does not take time. 2.Possibility of educating the employees. 3.Can respond to daily problems. 4.Difficult to imitate. 5. Take actions immediately. kaizen18



 The Type of Innovation

“The organization or the system is an organization (or a system) that is to be finished begins to degenerate.”Parkinson’s law kaizen20

 QC Management & Facilities Management

In order to reduce loss management, QC management and facilities management are implemented to maintain and continue the status quo. kaizen21

Kaizen pattern

Kaizen is the better way to explore under restriction limits. kaizen22

Practical Kaizen System

Kaizen is about the changing of the method of work without hassles, without spending money and using the wisdom to make work easy, safe and fast. Also,write downnotes of Kaizen and doing recording is important. If manifestation is being measured and communized with everyone is possible,a new Kaizen is born. kaizen23


In order to promote Kaizen, the important thing is there must be implementation. The traditional proposal system is going to be outdated in the future. The idea of ‘I am the proposer. You are the conductor. ’ does not work in the coming years. Try to practice it if you have any idea. If the idea is not good, rethink and try again. kaizen24

Of Record

Start with the recorded and datalysed work. kaizen25


  1. Contact the other departments related to the implementation, discuss and communize the problem.
  2. Provide education to the other departments.
  3. Pose and review the problems.


The Formula of Kaizen Value

【Standardization of the Pantograph Wear】 Overhead wires stretched diagonally in order to reduce the wear of the pantograph on the train and the contact part with overhead wires. kaizen27

Simple Is The Best

1. If the work goes complicated, the mistakes will increase. 2.Consider thecurrent situationand itsoriginal purpose of the work and determine if there is no waste. 3. Consider whether there are better ways or not. kaizen28

Eliminate The Unnecessary Works

1. To discern the necessary and unnecessary works. 2. Eliminate the unnecessary works to improve. 3. Focus on the primarily necessary work. 4. Attempt to improve the productivity and quality. kaizen29

Standards of Kaizen

The Know-How of  Kaizen Learn the standards of Kaizenand practice them at the site 『Stop』 ・Stopwasting ・Stoptheunnecessary ・Stopthe excessive 『Reduce』: Abolition⇒Reduce 『Add』 ・Change thepoint ofview. ・Change theprocedures and methods. ・Replace the materials and components. ・Change crisisinto opportunity. ・Return to the origin o basics. kaizen30

2 Types of Problems

There are only 2 problems: 『No』and 『Hard to~』. Therefore, there are only 2 measures: 『~tion』and 『Easy of~』. kaizen31

The 2 Measures

The only 2 measures : 『Of~』and 『Easy to~』.


Practice, take immediate action and put in habit on repeating asking the question why and find a better way to reification. kaizen33


Plans Kaizen in order to find the problems easily. Make it larger. Make it visible. Make it brighter. kaizen34

Visualization: Specific examples

Visualize the small problems earlier in order to avoid the occurrence of the big problems. 1. Make it larger 2. Make it visible 3. Make it brighter kaizen35

Stationarized. Regularized. Stylized

『Issue』『Kaizen Implementation』 It consumes excessive time to fix the irregular pieces separately. Fixing is not needed if stationarized, regularized and stylized are done. kaizen36

~ized: SpecificExamples

1.Stylized:Memoofphone messagesOmission isnotforgotten once you havecompletedthe necessaryitemspreparedbeforehandinstylizedform. 2.Stationarized:ToolboardDecide where to place and eliminate the waste of searching. kaizen37


『Issue』 Duplication, repetition and other problems Extra effort needed Share the duplicated collaboration part of elementsand conditions in advance. Strengthen the diversification according to the situation of things. However,there is an incompatibility in the mere diversification of the scattered and mixed. The basicpart is to plan the collaboration and demonstrate the unique synergy. kaizen38

Common in-: Specific Examples

1. Communization: Caliber of the guns & bullets Decides if the diameter of a pre-caliber and the bullets are compatible. kaizen39 2. Collaboration: Basic PC software Models, manufacturer and the data can be collaborated. kaizen40


『Kaizen Implementation』 『Issue』 The duplicate of an element will be a complicated mess. For example, a huge waste is occurred when the size of an organization is expanding and it collects similar data and does the same thing as other departments.The waste of duplication can be omittedif “unify or centralize” is done. kaizen41

Of~ : Specific Examples

1. List of ~: Checklist To list multiple items, check the waste to prevent leakage. 2. Centralization: Centralized the printing of the label, expiry date and bar code label of the product to reduce working process. kaizen42

Education of Kaizen Ability

1. Education of employees and administrators are included. 2. Kaizenleadership education and training. 3. Learn from other departments: Lecturer from other department、other plant tour 4. Create case studies and information about Kaizen (Self study regarding to DVD and server usually.) kaizen43

Example of a Tabulation Plan

Each participants create a Kaizen education plan. kaizen44

Learn from others

.Learn information from other jobs and industries. .For this, learn it with the attitude of humble and obedient. .Do not learnanythingfromarrogance. .It is necessary tobe aware of the problems. “The master said: “ When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them.” Confucius kaizen45

~ Education program ~

Provides mental and technical education in order to improve the motivation and skills. kaizen46

Valuation & Qualifications

Increase the staffs’ motivation by introducing a licensing system and judicialized the valuations.     kaizen47

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Gemba Kaizen for Lean manufacturing | Chap1:Kaizen Basic Education | lean tools